Chapter Review Outlines - AP® European History - Eagan High School

 

european history outline

The learning objectives have been consolidated and the concept outline material has been revised, with a new theme (National and European Identity) made explicit, although the scope of the course has not changed. n Language in the concept outline has been modified in places to improve clarity and to align with current scholarship. n. ACADEMICS > Academic Courses > Social Studies > AP® European History > Chapter Review Outlines Chapter 13 - European Society in the Age of the Renaissance: Chapter 13 - European Society in the Age of the Renaissance Chapter 14 - Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church. Here you will find all of our AP European History resources to help you prepare for the AP European History exam. We have European History outlines and review topics right now and we're working on adding European History practice essays, practice quizzes, vocabulary terms and free response questions in the near future.


AP Chapter 2 | AP European History & World Civilization


The French word for rebirth, this was a period with indistinct boundaries between and CE. Interest in the Classical Graeco-Roman world increased as Europe recovered from the Black Death and the other calamities which befell the fourteenth century. The Renaissance originated in Italy, but soon spread to the rest of Europe.

Social philosophy also saw a revolution during this era. A Swiss historian and art critic who wrote European history outline Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, which was published in He portrayed Italy during this european history outline as a place where the culture of european history outline was restored, individual potential was encouraged, and secularism set the region apart from the rest of Europe. The latter two were somewhat exaggerated and the religious aspect was underplayed.

Importance: Burkhardt set a basis for what modern scholars interpret as the Renaissance in Italy and later on, european history outline, the rest of Europe.

A fifteenth-century Florentine humanist and architect. He held a high regard for human dignity, worth, and potential. He also wrote the treatise On the Family. He wrote about the social ideal of the universal person, capable of achieving in many different facets of life.

The treatise also addressed families, which suffered from a lack of male heir, allowing the family name to die out, a common problem in Renaissance Italy.

Importance: He helped formulate and explain the idea of a universal person and his work provides some context for the issues that european history outline Renaissance families. It exceeded 80 cities by and monopolized the Northern European trade in timber, fish, grains, metals, honey, and wines. The southern city of Flanders was a crucial meeting place for Hanseatic and Venetian merchants.

In the fifteenth century, Bruges began to decline and took with it the Hanseatic League. A family that brought Florence back to its primacy in banking. Originally involved in the cloth industry, the Medici family expanded into banking, business, european history outline, and real estate, european history outline. It was, in the fifteenth century, the greatest European bank, european history outline to its many branches in Italy, Spain, France, England, and central Europe.

It maintained its control in the cloth industry, and added alum mining to its interests. The House of Medici also served as the bankers for the papacy.

This gave the Medici further influence and affluence, european history outline. At the close of the fifteenth century, the Medici bank declined due to poor leadership and loans. The French eventually ousted the Medici from Florence and seized its property. Importance: The Medici enhanced the prestige of Florence and served the papacy.

This book european history outline as a manual for European aristocrats. In it, he detailed the basic attributes of the ideal courtier: fundamental endowments, participation in military exercise, and a life adorned with the arts. Courtiers should have excellent conduct and grace in showing their accomplishments, european history outline, while maintaining a modest nature.

Castiglione also explained the aim of a courtier: to serve his ruler honestly and effectively. Importance: The book set a standard for court life and brought the ideal of a universal person into eminence as a key quality of the exemplary courtier.

The leader of a mercenary band. Condottieri sold their services to the highest bidder, which were sometimes city-states of Italy. A leading condottieri in He seized the duchy of Milan after the final Visconti ruler died by turning on his Milanese employers and taking over the city. Importance: He, european history outline, like the Visconti, was extremely successful in his taxation and generated immense revenues for his regime.

He also exemplifies the idea of a condottieri turned ruler. A member of the house of Medici who took control of the Florentine oligarchy, which itself was surreptitiously controlling the Florentine republic. He and his grandson controlled Florence while it was the center of the Renaissance in Italy. States in central Italy. Technically, these states were under the control of the papacy, but due to the split of the church in Rome and Avignonsingle cities and territories like Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara became independent of the papacy.

Importance: Popes of the fifteenth century later tried to reestablish control of these dissenting states in another struggle.

The daughter of the duke of Ferrara, married to the marquis of Mantua, Francesco Gonzaga. She was educated at the court of Ferrara and highly intelligent. She also possessed great political insight, as her many letters show. Isabella attracted many artists and intellectuals to the court of Mantua. Importance: Isabella was a strong female ruler of the Renaissance and showed political autonomy in her actions, which was rare for the time, but a marginally more common occurrence among the smaller courts of the era.

The Peace of Lodi was a treaty that ended almost fifty years of war and began an era of peace which lasted forty years. The alliance of Milan, Florence, and Naples against the papacy and Venice was created and led to a workable balance of power, the principal that no state should become great at the expense of others. Importance: The Peace of Lodi led both to a temporary era of peace and to a balance of power, european history outline, which competing European states used later on.

This brought a temporary end to the Italian wars. Importance: The Spanish dominated Italy after this while Italy remained blind to the potential benefits of an Italian alliance. The Prince is an extremely famous treatise on Western political power, written by Niccolo Machiavelli. The Prince primarily addresses the acquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order.

Importance: Machiavelli endorsed Cesare Borgia and created a new model for justified political activity, one in which morality was not a concern. Civic humanism is a branch of humanism european history outline at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as intellectuals turned to the Classical statesman and intellectual Cicero as an example.

In civic humanism, scholars of the humanities should serve the state. Importance: The role of an intellectual as a statesman became a Renaissance ideal, and humanists came to the belief that humanist scholars should serve the state, european history outline. Petrarch, the father of Italian Renaissance humanism, spent many years in the hospitality of various princes and city governments. He disparaged the Middle Ages, european history outline, painting it as a dark era of history, ignorant of Classical intellect.

He sought ancient Latin manuscripts and emphasized Classical Latin. He, in particular, exalted Cicero as a master of prose and Vergil as that of poetry. Importance: Petrarch created a reawakening of interest in Classical literature. He also made Cicero and Vergil models for emulation by other humanists. Lorenzo Valla was a prime example of a civic humanist. He was learned in Latin and Greek, and eventually became the papal secretary.

He accepted only Latin from the last century of the republic and first century of the empire, as opposed to earlier humanists. Importance: The novel served to create a new standard for Latin and distinguish the different developmental phases of Latin. Valla also served as an example of a conscious civic humanist. Ficino spent his entire life translating Plato and explaining the philosophy of Neo-Platonism. Importance: Ficino fused Christianity and secular Platonism into his new system of Neo-Platonism, in which Platonism european history outline Christianity no longer conflicted.

This manuscript contained writings which emphasized occult sciences, european history outline others emphasized theology and philosophy. Some of these writings contained pantheism, that divine bodies were in nature and the heavens as well as Earth.

Hermeticism viewed humans as divine create beings that had freely chosen to enter the material world of nature. These humans would be true sages, or magi. Those who followed the path of liberal studies were to become virtuous and wise, european history outline, with the persuasive skills to convince others to follow the same path.

Physical education was also encouraged in liberal studies. Females occasionally joined the schools, but they were not given education in mathematics or rhetoric. Liberal studies trained students to become active in civic life and practice virtue. Importance: European education for the upper classes consisted of liberal studies, classical studies, and Christianity until the twentieth century. Guicciardini was a historian, considered by some modern scholars to be the greatest historian between the first and eighteenth centuries.

To make some of the more subtle lessons obvious to readers, Guicciardini analyzed political and military history. His books rely on personal examples as well as documentary sources. He set a precedent relied on even today.

Gutenburg was the inventor of movable metal type. While wooden block type had been developed centuries earlier, movable metal type made printing efficient and useful. While the majority of these books were religious, others were standardized texts for scholars and professionals to consult. Due to the printing press, the Reformation ideas of religion would not have been european history outline to take such a sturdy and speedy hold in Europe.

Masaccio was a Renaissance artist who sought to imitate nature. He painted several frescoes in the European history outline Chapel in Florence. These frescoes exemplify realism, a new movement in Renaissance art. He, like his grandfather, european history outline, dominated Florence, and brought artists and scholars such as Sandro Botticelli famous for the Birth of Venus into his court.

These artists added an ethereal quality to their works, as part of a movement towards the close of the fifteenth century. Importance: Lorenzo, as a patron of arts and culture, contributed to the flourishing of the arts during his prominence in Florence.

Importance: The Primavera exemplifies invention in artistic technique, a characteristic of the conclusion of european history outline fifteenth century. David was a statue by Donato di Donatello. Donatello spent a great deal of time scrutinizing and studying statues of the Classical age in Rome. After that, his statues in Florence represented the essence of such statues, such as David. Importance: David was the first known full size, freestanding, bronze nude in Europe after the Classical era.

 

AP European History Notes, Outlines and DBQs | CourseNotes | CourseNotes

 

european history outline

 

The learning objectives have been consolidated and the concept outline material has been revised, with a new theme (National and European Identity) made explicit, although the scope of the course has not changed. n Language in the concept outline has been modified in places to improve clarity and to align with current scholarship. n. AP European History Course and Exam Description This is the core document for the course. It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in general. Here you will find all of our AP European History resources to help you prepare for the AP European History exam. We have European History outlines and review topics right now and we're working on adding European History practice essays, practice quizzes, vocabulary terms and free response questions in the near future.